Tier 1 ISP Characteristic

Tier 1 network terms is usually used when we talk about computer networking, from meriam webster dictionary the definition of tier is :
a : a row, rank, or layer of articles; especially : one of two or more rows, levels, or ranks arranged one above another
b : a group of political or geographic divisions that form a row across the map (the southern tier of states)

this is taken from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/tier

Tier 1 network can be understood as rank 1 network, Tier 1 ISP then refers to Rank 1 ISP. from wikipedia the tier 1 network is an internet protocol network that participate in the internet via settlement-free interconnection called settlement free peering.

Tier 2 network / ISP is network that still needs tier 1 ISP reach some portion of (global) internet. This tier 2 ISP pays for unequal traffic flows between them, the term fee-based peering or transit is usually used to refers to this kind of settlement. Tier 2 network may connected through same size network with settlement free peering (tier 2 to tier 2)

While Tier 3 network / ISP is network that is connected to global internet through Tier 2 ISP. as the customer of bigger ISP, they pay for the transit fee to its Tier 1 or Tier 2 ISP.

You can observe the network hierarki from this image

Tier Network Hierarchy
Tier Network Hierarchy

Network Provider Hierarchy

From IDC White Paper (Tier 1 ISPs : What Are They And Why They Are Important) there are some characteristics that represent Tier 1 Network :

1. Tier 1 Networks Dont Pay for the trafic between similiar size networks
2. Tier 1 Networks Have access to all routing tables from their peering networks
3. Tier 1 Networks peer on one or more continent
4. Tier 1 Networks own or lease transoceanic fiberoptic transport
5. Tier 1 Networks deliver packet to and from customer and to and from peers around the world


in computer networks, peering means voluntary interconnection between separately internet network in purpose for exchange traffic between the customer of each network. Each participant doesn’t pay for the traffic, instead they get the money from their own customer. The term peering is used when two participant shared the same link with same size (equivalent sized partner).

The biggest internet provider that connected accross continent is example of tier 1 ISP. some of them will have underground oceanic backbone to ensure it can deliver the highest data rate.

There are 3 basic form of interconnection rules : public peering, private peering, and transit.

private peering refers to direct interconnection between two ISP. this connection is built via layer 1 and layer 2 link between ISP with similar networks capacity and traffic level. Its exclusive and expensive

public peering refers to multiple interconnection of network through internet exchange. it is the predominant model for exchanging traffic between ISP. The term public implies that many tier 1 or tier 2 networks can connect through it. The service itself can be free and commercial. the commercial one tough, tries to give the experience equal with private peering, they move incredible amount of traffic, without loss.

Transit refers to selling dedicated access through ISP network via private lease-line telecommunications circuits. Transit cost comes from circuit cost and variable cost associated with the traffic carried upstream to the internet.

You can read more about it here

Internet Explorer 10 (IE10) Plus and Minor Minus

Internet 10 is ie accompanion for windows 8, but it can be downloaded freely and run well in windows 7. Whats new about internet explorer is that internet explorer 10 offers new performance, much better than its predecessor, other older ie version

some site has displayed benchmark result of some most used browser such as firefox, google chrome, opera. And among these browsers internet explorer 10 has showed really good result loh πŸ™‚

Plus :

1. Some old system/application in corporate environment is built browser based
you will meet some application and system that can only run in Internet Explorer, so using internet explorer 10 will still offers u ability to access the application while having better user experience

2. Better performance in javascript and html 5
Internet Explorer 10 has known to have better performance in javascript and html 5, its in the best 2 among other browser. Now, internet explorer upper rival is google chroome, cool isn’t it

Javascript benchmark
Javascript benchmark
V8 benchmark
V8 benchmark

you can read the review here

Minor Minus :

1. Minimized tab representation
one thing i hate from this browser is that this browser still showing multiple icon in our windows taksbar for each tab we open.
somehow this kind of representation makes me think that i had open many programs separately and drives me to think that my laptop works much harder to run each internet explorer tab
here is the picture showing how browser tabs resulted in minimized IE icons in taksbar..

Internet explorer 10
Internet explorer 10

2. right click menu
beside those disadvantages there is still right click menu option that is missing, there is no ‘show image’ or ‘open image in new tab’

internet explorer 10 right click menu
internet explorer 10 right click menu

so its harder for me to take images url source or to open images in new tab

to download the internet explorer 10 you can open here

Probability And Statistic Terms : Basic Probability Terms

Probability and statistics is very important in real life application, it is very useful for analysis in business process and market research. here i write some term usually used in probability and statistic in order to make us more familiar and to review/remember it.

1. Random Experiment : Experiment that its outcome can’t be measure for certainty for ex, the result when we toss the dice in contrast with biology experiment that usually comes up with general result, provided we control the variable under alike conditions

2. Sample Spaces : A set S that contains of all possible outcome from random experiment. when we toss a dice than sample space is (1,2,3,4,5,6) or all possible outcome of each side of the dice
-Sample points : Each outcome in sample spaces.
-Finite sample space : if sample space has finite number of points (discrete sample space ex= integer)
-Countably infinite sample space : if it has as many points as natural number
-Uncountably infinite sample space : if it has as many points in some interval in x axis 0<=x<=1 = (nondiscrete sample space ex= real number) 3. Event : is subset A of sample space S, a set of possible outcomes -Elementary set : single points/posible outcome -Certain set : set S, where any of S can occure -Empty set : if element can not occur in S -Union : if either A or B or both occure = A U B -Intersection : if both A and B occurs = A and B -complement of A : A' = Not A = Sample space - A -A but not B represented by = A-B or A and B' -Mutually Exclusive : If A and B can not both occur (A and B = 0) 4. Axiom of Probability Supposed we have discrete set S then all subsets corresponds to event, Conversely we have nondiscrete set S, only special subsets called measurable correspond to event, To each event A in the class C of event, we associate a real number P(A). P is called probability function, and P(A) the probability of event if the following axiom is satisfied [caption width="500" align="aligncenter"]axiom of probability axiom of probability[/caption]

5. Probability Theorem

probability theorem

probability theorem
probability theorem

Harddisk and Other Input Device Aren’t Detected During Booting

Harddisk and Other Input Device Aren’t Detected During Booting. It happened right after i tried to modify bios setting. actually i just want to change the boot order but somehow i slipped, so in order to keep the last setting i choose to activate the optimized default options. but after its restarted it opened the bios setting directly without any button pressed. I also couldn’t find booting priority options.

harddisk, flash usb, and dvd writer were also not detected by my laptop. i tried optimized default menu once again but i still couldn’t make it right. it didn’t show any input device during booting.

after struggling for a while i found the secure boot options
i wasnt sure about this option actually and i hadnt looked for it in internet, but after i disable it
my laptop worked well like before πŸ™‚

so if you somehow have some problem with me, make sure to check for secure boot option in your bios and disable it, it may solve your problem.

unable booting after windows 7 loader installation

it happened some days ago when i tried to use maybe-obsolete windows 7 loader. after the process of installation i found that my laptop couldn’t boot. it looped between the off state and the logo. the solution is actually simple. we can use our installation disk or our windows installation that had been set into other media such as usb flashdisk. make sure you can boot into th flashdisk or your installation media. you can choose the boot priority by modify its setting. just press ‘esc’ while the logo of your laptop manufacturer comes up.

fixing the boot loop can be done using tools provided by windows installation, usually its just loader problem, so once you fix it your laptop will run as usual. choose command prompt and use this following options :
a. bootrec /fixmbr
b. bootrec /fixboot

type or try to run the second option if you can’t get your laptop right using the first one πŸ™‚

Video Compression in IPTV

Compression means reducing number of bits required to represent the video image. Video compression in IPTV is always needed in order to deliver smooth service. choosing suitable video compression can mean success or failure in video networking project.

compressing technology has been used to transform large data into small one that can be put into more tiny device. mp3 compression convert audio data from CD into smaller file that can be put into mp3 player with a smaller size of storage (at first). Other compression make it possible for us to watch 2 hours movie from DVD cassette and player. even we can put more than one movie into 1 DVD.

Compression technology has been used because it has many advantages such as :
1. Compressed stream can be transmitted over lower bit rate network rather than uncompressed stream.
2. More compressed stream can fit into given bandwidth.
3. Without compression there is no way to deliver HD video which occupies 1Gbps of bandwidth.
4. Compressed stream can fit more into given storage size.
5. A good compression technique can be used to reduce the amount of bandwidht

How To Avoid Laptop Turned Off Suddenly

There are some cases where our laptop turned off suddenly. It immediately leaves us with black screen, without giving us any confirmation or message. From google i get some tips to avoid getting our laptop turned off like that. Because it is really annoying if we still have a lot of things to do with our laptop or we are in the middle of really busy project and wana make sure it recorded/run well.

Some tips to avoid your laptop turned of suddenly are listed below :

1. Overheat
Overheat can be caused by running very heavy programs that consumes high amount of RAM and Processing. You can check it via task manager, its green indicator bar displays your ram and proccess usage if you see it too high, you can try to reduce it by closing heavy programs or reducing its proccess. Fan problem usually is the reason why your laptop overheat. If your laptop fan is not working well or may be doesn’t work at all, we can make sure that your laptop will be turned off as soon as it is started. You need to fix it in order to get your laptop performance back.

2. Virus
I don’t know but some virus may cause this turned off problem in your laptop. the solution is offcourse too install the antivirus. Smaller and faster antivirus is better than heavy one :). If you don’t find any problem with RAM + Processor and Fan problem you can try to run full scan on your laptop, but don’t run any other program. if it passed, than maybe virus isn’t your problem

3. Fan position
When you are using your laptop you need to make sure that you don’t block your laptop’s fan. The easy way is to make sure you place your laptop in flat place. for example in table or in floor. dont place your laptop in your bed, blanket or other place that may reduce air circulation.

4. Use cooling pad
Using cooling pad can help you avoid your laptop from heating.

5. Use power management application in windows
Windows also provides you power management application. You can utilize it to reduce your proccessor power consumption. By doing this means you restrain you processor work capacity, you reduce your processor performance, so it won’t get overheat. to do this you can go to windows logo and write power options or you can go to control panel and search power options

power options in windows
power options in windows

then choose one of the power plan > in the right side choose change plan setting

power options, change plan setting
power options, change plan setting

after that you choose advanced setting
in the windows that appears, choose processor and reduce the amount to amount you need

advanced setting in power options
advanced setting in power options

now u should see that your processor power consumption is restrained and it may help you prevent your laptop from overheat problem

IPTV Architecture

IPTV system consists of typical parts, although the name and the details per part can be different between one provider and other but usually to deliver its content IPTV system will have these :

1. SHE (Super Head End)
2. VSO (Video Serving Office)
3. CO (Central Officer) or RT (Remote Terminal) that can serve as (Local End Office)

Super Head End
Super Head End is primary source of programming for IPTV systems. it is responsible for gathering content from programming supplier, converting it into appropriate form for delivery in IPTV network, and transmit it to Video Serving Office (VSO’s).
Super Head End (SHE) performs :
1. Content Aggregation
2. Conversion
3. Transport
4. Formatting

IPTV architecture
IPTV architecture

Video Serving Office
Video Serving Office is responsible for video processing and delivery services for geographic region, such as city. It is also responsible for distributing the content from SHE into every CO/RT in the region. VSO function aslo include
1. Localization
2. Compression
3. Stream Creation
4. Storage
5. Local ads
6. Interactivity
7. STB authorization
8. Fiber delivery

Central Office/ Remote Terminal
Central Office contains telephone call switching equipment. Remote terminal which is usually located underground contain system that connect subscriber lines and digital or fiber optic links to nearest CO.
CO/RT functions also include :
1. DSLAM function
2. Multicasting Technology
3. Connectivity
4. Combining services

Customer Premises
Is the parts/equipment that located in each home for example
1. DSL Modem
2. DSL filter
3. The Home Gateway
4. The STB

Differences Between IPTV, IPVOD, Internet TV, and Internet Video

The use of words IPTV and internet TV are usually used interchangeably while in fact there Β are some differences between those words. In my previous post about internet technology for ip tv, i have mention a little about IPTV, now in this post i will write the definition and differences between IPTV, IPVOD, Internet TV and Internet Video.

the table below describe the differences between IPTV, IPVOD, Internet TV, and Internet Video. The first table will display colom for IPTV and IPVOD, the next table displays colom for Internet TV and Internet Video

Service Attribute IPTV IPVOD
Key Protocol Streaming RTP over UDP Progressive Download + Play
Key Protocol Streaming RTP over UDP Progressive Download + Play
Viewing Device STB + TV STB + TV or PC
User Experience Similiar to broadcast or cable TV Similiar to DVDR or VOD
Rewind or Fast Forward No Yes
Content Types Live or prerecorded prerecorded only


And these are the differences between Internet TV and Internet video. (I write this separately because i can’t display the table in full view)


Service Attribute Internet TV Internet Video
Key Protocol Http Streaming: Progressive Download + Play Http Streaming: Progressive Download + Play
Viewing Device PC, mobile, or network appliance PC, mobile, or network appliance
User Experience Similiar to web surfing Similiar to web surfing
Rewind or Fast Forward No Yes
Content Types Live or prerecorded prerecorded only


from table above we can see that the difference between each term is that IPTV and IPVOD use STB or Set-Top Box while Internet TV and Internet Video only use PC or mobile device (smartphone), its just the same with browsing activity. While the difference between term “TV” and “Video” (including Video in “‘Video’ on Demand”) lies in the fact that one provides live content, while the other only provides prerecorded content.

*Set-Top Box is device that receives video packets, decompress them, and display images in realtime. It is crucial component of any IPTV network.

The reason why IPTV exploding?

The reason why IPTV exploding?

Video is precisely timed, continuous stream of constant bit rate information which actually needs its own channel that is purposely-built for video. In contrast IP carry many different kinds of data from different recourse on a common channel. IP is actually deliver information in broken packet. IP technologies by default doesn’t meed the requirement for video service but why IPTV is exploding?

from IPTV and internet Video book, the reason are these five basic arguments :

1. Broadband IP networks reach so many households, Video service providers don’t need to create their own network
2. IP can simplify task to launch new video services, such as Video On Demand, and targetted advertisement.
3. The cost of IP networking is declining due to massive production of infrastructures and equipments.
4. IP network is available in every country and the user of highspeed data connection is growing continuously.
5. IP covers and provides services for many technologies such as web, data transfer, money transaction, dll, it means that people will need and use IP technology in their life