Monthly Archives: December 2012

Joomla : Change Forgotten Administrator Password

sometimes we easily forget our password when its never used.
in this case i forgot my joomla administrator password.
i found this post in joomla documentation and re-blog it to make me remember it more.

joomla logo

1. Go to your phpmyadmin page
2. Open your joomla database
3. Find jos_users table, (in your database the prefix jos… according to your setting, sometimes named josroot_users or any other name)
4. Click that table and choose browse on the top mysql menu.
5. Edit (on name coloum) administrator entry.
6. On password option insert your new password in md5 code.
(u can generate it in this page)
7. Click Go

Add New User on Ubuntu

To add user on ubuntu we can use useradd command, which has some options. For example we want to create new user named “cooluser” with password “usercool”, and we want to make the home directory in /home/cooluser

[php]useradd cooluser -p usercool -m [/php]

this command will create new directory in /home/cooluser

to delete user use this command

[php]userdel cooluser[/php]

to observe other option just use man command

[php]man useradd[/php]

Automatically Create Read More Page WordPress

For your each of your wordpress web you have your own themes. Each theme has its own setting. For example, originally my themes didnt create “Read More” for each article in home page. Manually i can set it up in my new post. Simply by clicking more icon in the middle or after some words in article. The result will be home page with list of my posts, but now it has read more section that will drive the user to single post format.

If you want to do it automatically u can choose or use the_excerpt() function instead the_content() function.
You can do this to you home page by doing these steps :
1. Open Your dashboard
2. Go to Appereance ===> Editor
3. Choose index.php to be modified
4. Find string the_content()
5. Replace it with the_excerpt()
6. Update/Save this modification

Now you will have automatically created read more section for all your posts displayed on your homepage

Find Out Operating System Version

Sometimes we need to determine what version of our OS. Mostly for all unix, linux os we can do it with ‘uname’ command. for FreeBSD it works well and we can see directly what version our FreeBSD is, but for ubuntu and centos we can get it straight what we need because instead of display OS version its just will display the kernel version.

then i find out that we can use this command

1. cat /etc/issue

2. /etc/lsb-release

3. cat /etc/apt/sources.list (by seeing repository)

On debian u can use this command (in order)

1. cd /etc

2. ls | grep version

On FreeBSD

1. uname -a

How to List Hardware on Ubuntu

To list hardware on ubuntu u can simply use lshw command. However on ubuntu fresh installation sometimes we find that this is not installed.

1. install lshw
apt-get install lshw

2. list your hardware

3. to display certain hardware u can add option -C class
lshw -C disk
lshw -C network

4. to see more compact view class
lshw -short

How To List Hardware on FreeBSD

u can use sysctl and dmesg to list all your hardware on freebsd

# sysctl -a

then use grep and egrep to choose what hardware you like to display

1. CPU

# sysctl -a | egrep -i 'hw.machine|hw.model|hw.ncpu'

2. Memory
# sysctl -a | grep mem
or for good display u can see this page

3. Harddisk

# egrep 'ad[0-9]|cd[0-9]' /var/run/dmesg.boot

4. Ethernet
# ifconfig

TCP/IP Protocol Suite and OSI Model (Protocol Mapping)

TCP/IP protocol suite can be modelled related to OSI. Instead seven layer of OSI, in TCP/IP protocol suite (DoD: Department of Defense), it only has four layers.

DoD and OSI Model
DoD and OSI Model

1. Proces/Application layer in TCP/IP or DoD model integrates the functions of Application, Presentation, and Session Layer of OSI model : node-to-node communication and control of user-interface.

2. Host-to-Host layer in TCP/IP or DoD model represents the functions of Transport Layer of OSI model : transmission service, reliable communication, ensuring error-free delivery of data.

3. Internet Layer in TCP/IP or DoD model  represents the functions of Network Layer of OSI model : logical transmission, IP addressing, routing packets across different network.

4. Network Access Layer in TCP/IP or DoD model represents the functions of  Data Link Layer + Physical Layer of OSI model : monitors data exchange between host and network, hardware addressing, defines protocol for the physical transmission of data.

TCP/IP protocol suite in DoD model.

TCP/IP Protocol Suite in DoD Model
TCP/IP Protocol Suite in DoD Model

Process/Application Layer

1.  Telnet : Terminal Emulation, Allows machine (telnet client) to access resources of other (remote) machines (telnet servers).
2. FTP : File Transfer Protocol, Allows user to transfer transfer file between any machines using it. Protocol + Program (Allow user to do performs certain task by hand).
3. TFTP : Trivial File Transfer Protocol, simple version of FTP, reduced functions and security, but faster than FTP.
4. NFS : Network File System, Protocol specializing in File Sharing, allows different types of file systems to interoperate. Ex : NSF server running in NT server and client in unix allows user to access same file with their normal file system in normal way.
5. SMTP : Simple Mail Transfer Protocol handles email, uses spoole or queued, model of mail delivery.
6. LPD : Line Printer Daemon, Printer Sharing
7. X-Window : Client server operation, Display things trough window server on another computer .
8. SNMP : Simple Network Management Protocol collects and manipulates valuable network information.
9. DNS : Domain Name Service, resolves hostname, changes IP address into hostname and hostname into IP address.
10. DHCP : Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol assigns IP addresses to host. BootP : hardware address must be inputted manually in BootP table. DHCP Provides Information : IP address, Subnet Mask, Gateway address, DNS server, Domain Name, WINS information. using UDP to send broadcast message on FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF and

Host-to-Host Layer

TCP ( Transmission Control Protocol )
takes information from application and breaks them into segments, numbers and sequences segments, so that segments can be putted back together in order.

UDP ( User Datagram Protocol )
unreliable protocol, only break information into segments but doesn’t number/sequences the segments, then send it off to destination without any acknowledgement.

TCP and UDP Comparison
TCP and UDP Comparison

Internet Layer

1. IP : Internet Protocol = Internet Layer. it looks each address, using the table, choose the best path to deliver packets.
2. ICMP : Internet Control Message Protocol, provides information about network problems : Destination Unreachable, Buffer Full, Hops, Ping, Traceroute.
3. ARP : Address Resolution Protocol : finds hardware address of known host ip address.
4. RARP : Reverse Address Resolution Protocol : resolves MAC address to ip address.
5. Proxy ARP : Helps Machine reach destination without configuring routing or default gateway.

source : CCNA Study Guide Exam

Choice Open Source over Windows?

i have been enjoying two different operating system for last two years. i am common user though, not a programmer or app developer. my dual core laptop has been used two years for helping me with my study in college, and also as a media entertainment for me. 2004, i was enjoying my first experience with computer, what’s inside it? Of course we had Windows, windows 98 or XP that time. In my Junior High School, computer began to be one of the most needed thing. We, as students are required to understand how the computer work, and we had to know basic knowledge about it.

Windows was the first flavor, we tasted the beauty of the computer by learning about ms word and excel, text editor or words application and spreadsheet respectively. There were also some games, such as the sims, fifa, dll. it was amazing to experience those old games. there was also internet, internet explorer let us to browse email sites like yahoo and hotmail. in my small village though we are a consumer, i my self was not a nerd. so that was my first experience as technology consumer. i didnt know anything about opensource, and not knowing that operating system wasnt only windows XP. Windows has gave us many thing to taste, from beautiful words application, spreadsheet, and also many games and applications. All i know those was bundled in .exe form, and not free of charge. All this applications and operating systems itself were expensive actually. Well, not sure its lucky or not, we can found many cracked software and games, many list of serial number and keys, It is really not legal, but we just dont realize and consider it much. what we considered that time just whether or not we can get the software and games run well on our old computer.

Now is the days if technology, term Open Source is announced everywhere and every time because of its major advantages over windows.

from wikipedia
Open-source software (OSS) is computer software that is available in source code form: the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that permits users to study, change, improve and at times also to distribute the software.

maybe these are the major advantages of open source over windows
1. Ability to be modified, remake, redistribute
it suggests us to understand the program or the system better. and actually we can do it by studying from its sources. some people say it is nice because we may knowing better how program work than just use it for ordinary use.
2. Easy of access and the low (no) price
some opensource come with really low price and some of them come with no charge or free.

Some other better things for open source over proprietary software are (Scholars Casson and Ryan)

Well, know the world of open source comes to us. we should be ready to face it. Windows and its (mostly) proprietary software now still the best for some major applications, and for this reason i still love to use windows. There are many free software too actually, and many ways to learn how to create application that can run on windows. but the term open source and its goal is even more beautiful. From my dual boot ubuntu i learn how Open Source work, i experience the nice service they give, and i’d love to learn more about it too.

source :

Add and Enable Gravatar on WordPress

Gravatar or global avatar is nice service that enables us to share our avatar anywhere. The main function of this service or application is to add our profile, including photos and short explanation about us into our web page. In wordpress this application is useful in comments. We can put our photos to our comments on our own site and also on the other site.

my gravatar

Gravatar is not enable by default in wordpress. It is on separate .com site. To enable this gravatar in wordpress u just need to signup to with your email address that u use in wordpress. there is the step to make it work.

1. Go to your wordress dashboard, Settings, choose General.
2. Check or fill the email address
3. Open new tab,
4. Sign up to with the same email address on your General Setting wordpress
5. Confirm your gravatar account on your inbox email
6. Log-in to, upload some images, Try make new comment, it will works

Some other explanation can u find in